တုိင္းရင္းသားအသံဆုိတာ တရားမွ်တမွဳ၊တန္တူအခြင္႔အေရး၊လြတ္ေျမာက္ေရး၊စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စု။ဒီမုိကေရစီ၊ ႏွင္႔ကုိယ္ပုိင္ျပဌာန္ခြင္႔အသံမ်ားျဖစ္ပါသည္၊ "တရားတဲ့စစ္ပြဲဟာ မတရားတဲ့စစ္ပြဲကုိ အျမဲေအာင္ရမည္"
Thursday, December 18, 2008
အေမရိကန္၏FTA ေၾကာင့္ ေတာင္ကုိးရီးယာပါလီမာန္တြင္အဓိကရုန္းျဖစ္
S. Korean lawmakers brawl over US free trade pact
By JAE-SOON CHANG – 16 hours ago
SEOUL, South Korea (AP) — Brawling South Korean lawmakers tried to sledgehammer their way into a parliamentary meeting room barricaded by the ruling party as the National Assembly descended into chaos Thursday over a free trade agreement with the United States.
Opposition parties were incensed by the ruling Grand National Party's move to submit the agreement to a committee on trade, setting in motion the process for the accord to win approval in the legislature.
Security staff and aides from the ruling party stood guard outside the room to keep opposition lawmakers away after the committee's GNP-affiliated chairman invoked his right to use force to "keep order" in parliamentary proceedings.
Scuffles broke out as dozens of opposition members and their aides attempted to push their way into the office. TV footage showed people from both sides shoving, pushing and shouting in a crowded hall at the National Assembly building amid a barrage of flashing cameras.
Opponents later used a sledgehammer and other construction tools to tear open the room's wooden doors, only to find barricades of furniture set up inside as a second line of defense.
Cable news channel YTN reported that an electric saw was used to open the door. YTN footage showed security guards spraying fire extinguishers at those trying to force their way inside and one man with blood trickling down his face.
The opposition attempt failed, and 10 GNP legislators introduced the bill to the committee.
"This is a clear violation of law," the main opposition Democratic Party said in a statement, accusing the GNP of illegally occupying the parliamentary chamber and unilaterally introducing the bill. "This is a declaration of war against the opposition and the people."
Clashes between lawmakers are not unusual in the National Assembly. Such violence has long been cited as one of the worst ills of South Korean politics.
South Korea and the United States signed the accord that calls for slashing tariffs and other barriers to trade in April last year after 10 months of tough negotiations, though neither side's legislature has yet ratified it — the key step needed for it to take effect.
The pact is the largest for the U.S. since the North American Free Trade Agreement with Canada and Mexico and the biggest ever for South Korea. NAFTA, signed in 1993, took effect the following year.
Proponents in both countries say it would not only expand trade but further cement ties between Washington and Seoul — key security allies who have cooperated on issues such as North Korea for decades.
Opponents counter that it will cause pain to key sectors in both nations — agriculture in South Korea and automobiles in the United States.
GNP legislators had locked themselves in the committee room earlier in the day to head off any opposition attempts to occupy the chamber — the only place where the bill can be introduced.
After a subcommittee review, the bill would be put to a vote at the committee before reaching the full parliamentary session for a final vote.
The GNP says it aims to pass the bill by year's end. The party has a majority in both the committee and in the entire parliament, with 172 seats in the 298-member unicameral National Assembly. But the process is expected to be tough going because opposition parties say they will do whatever possible to stop it.
The Democratic Party says the trade deal should not be approved until the government comes up with better measures to protect farmers and others expected to suffer from increased U.S. imports.
The ruling GNP says the trade pact should be approved as early as possible because South Korea — a major exporting nation — stands to gain much from the deal.
Amid concern the administration of President-elect Barack Obama might ask to renegotiate the agreement, supporters of the pact believe early ratification by Seoul could also put pressure on the U.S. Congress to do the same.
(ဒီတစ္ေခါက္ေပးတဲ့အလွဴေငြမ်ားကုိေမာင္သန္းေရႊတုိ.အုပ္စုခုိးဝွက္လုိ.မရေအာင္လုပ္ထားဖုိ.လုိတယ္)၊ေမာင္သန္း ေရႊတုိ.အုပ္စုအေနနဲ.လဲဒုကၡေရာက္ေနတဲ့လူထုအတြက္ေပးထားတဲ့အလွဴေငြမ်ားကုိ ဝါေစးေဝစားျခင္းမလုပ္ၾကဖုိ.ရွိခုိးကန္ ေတာ့ပါ၏၊
EU provides extra 40 million euros in aid to Myanmar
14 hours ago
BRUSSELS (AFP) — The European Commission on Thursday decided give an extra 40.5 million euros (58.7 million dollars) in aid for two million vulnerable people in Myanmar, notably those affected by cyclone Nargis in May.
A total of 22 million euros is allocated to help cyclone-hit communities in and around the southwest Irrawaddy delta, where the catastrophe left 138,000 people dead or missing and devastated rice paddies, a commission statement said.
The money is added to the 17 million euros which was released as emergency aid after the cyclone struck.
A second aid envelope of 18.5 million euros will be provided for a programme targeting "other highly vulnerable populations inside Myanmar, as well Burmese refugees in Thailand".
Around two million people are expected to benefit directly from this support which will be managed by the European Commission's Humanitarian Aid department (ECHO) and channelled through European NGOs, United Nations agencies and the Red Cross.
"We have progressively developed a very good cooperation with the authorities on humanitarian access in the Irrawaddy Delta in the wake of the cyclone Nargis," said EU Development Commissioner Louis Michel.
The EU's executive will continue advocating for similar cooperation and access to other parts of the country, he added.
"I am particularly concerned about the forgotten crisis in Northern Rakhine State, where some 800,000 Muslim Rohingya live in terrible conditions."
|Dec 18, 2008|
30 Myanmar refugees accepted
|TOKYO - JAPAN has decided to accept about 30 Myanmar refugees who are living in camps in Thailand, officials said on Thursday, marking a new stage in Tokyo's acceptance of refugees. |
While small by global standards, the number is significant for Japan, which only accepts dozens of refugees each year and imposes tight restrictions on immigration.
Around 120,000 Myanmar refugees live in nine camps along the border with Thailand, most of who have fled crackdowns by Myanmar's junta on ethnic armies.
A United Nations-led resettlement plan launched in 2005 has offered more than 38,000 Myanmar refugees an opportunity to start new lives overseas, mostly in the United States.
Japan said it was ready to take part in the plan, as Japanese Prime Minister Taro Aso met in Tokyo with Antonio Guterres, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees.
'As Thailand bans the Myanmar refugees from going outside their camps, it is hoped that the international community can accept them and allow them to lead normal lives,' Cabinet Office official Junko Yamaji said.
It will mark the first time that Japan accepts refugees already living in another country, she said.
'The difference between the conventional acceptance of refugees and the resettlement is that the refugees don't have to come to Japan to apply for refugee status,' she added.
Japan plans to start the project in the 2010 fiscal year but has yet to decide where the refugees will live or how to support them.
Japan has been a major donor to the UN refugee agency but has also come under fire for not extending more of a welcome mat. -- AFP
ဗုဒၶဟူးေန႕၊ 17 ဒီဇင္ဘာလ 2008 သွ်မ္းသံေတာ္ဆင့္
တ႐ုပ္ - ျမန္မာ ကုန္စည္ျပပြဲ ဖြင့္ပြဲအခမ္းအနားကို သွ်မ္းျပည္ေျမာက္ပိုင္း မူဆယ္ၿမိဳ႕ ၁၀၅ မိုင္တြင္ က်င္းပရာ တက္ေရာက္ မည့္ ႏွစ္ႏိုင္ငံလူႀကီးမ်ား ႀကိဳဆိုရန္ ေဒသခံတိုင္းရင္းသားစာေပယဥ္ေက်းမႈအဖြဲ႔မ်ား ႐ုိးရာ၀တ္စံုႏွင့္ မျဖစ္မေနတက္ေရာက္ ရမည္ ဟု မူဆယ္ၿမိဳ႕အာဏာပိုင္မ်ားကဆင့္ေခၚေၾကာင္း တ႐ုပ္နယ္စပ္သတင္းရပ္ကြက္ကဆိုသည္။
Tuesday, December 16, 2008
ကခ်င္းေက်ာင္းသားလူငယ္သုံးေယာက္အလုပ္သမားစခန္းသုိ.ပုိ.ခံရ Three Kachin student leaders sent to forced labour camp
Three Kachin student leaders sent to forced labour camp
|News - Kachin News Group|
|Tuesday, 16 December 2008|
| The Burmese military junta sentenced three ethnic Kachin student leaders to one year in a forced labour camp which doubles as a prison on charges of being involved in a 'racial movement' in Mon Ywa University in Sagaing Division in northern Burma in September, said Kachin student sources.|
Tu Nan, final year Economics student and Secretary of the School for Kachin Culture and Literature was also included among those sentenced. They were sent to the forced labour camp in Khanti in the division in September, said a Kachin student leader in Myitkyina University in Kachin state.
The Kachin student leaders have been sentenced for their involvement in murdering a Burman Economics student in the school in September. However they were charged for 'racial movement' instead of being slapped with a 'murder charge', said Kachin students in Mon Ywa University.
In early September, a Burman student, the son of retired Burmese Army Major was beaten to death in the school hostel by over 20 male Kachin students including the three Kachin student leaders because they felt racially discriminated against by Burman students being in the school's majority, according to a local source close to student leaders.
The three student leaders were arrested and promptly sentenced to one year in prison in Khanti forced labour camp soon after the murder was reported to a Kachin headed the ruling junta's Military Affairs Security Unit (Sa Ya Pha) or the military intelligence squad in Mandalay Division and commander Maj-Gen Soe Win of Northern Military Command headquarters (Ma Pa Kha) based in Myitkyina, the capital of Kachin state, added Kachin students in the school.
According to sources close to Kachin students in Mon Ywa University, the school has over 300 Kachin Economics students but the discrimination is unlimited against Kachin students who are looked down upon by Burman students. Kachin schoolgirls are also treated as casual sex partners by Burman males.
Mung Ywa school sources said the junta tried to put the lid on this incident apprehensive that it would snowball into a students' demonstration against the junta.
မြန္ႏိုင္ငံေရးအက်ဥ္းသား ႏိုင္မ်ဳိးေသြးကို ေထာင္ေျပာင္း
Tue 16 Dec 2008, လြတ္လပ္ေသာမြန္သတင္းေအဂ်င္စီ
ဖမ္းဆီးေထာင္ခ်ထားေသာ မြန္ႏိုင္ငံေရးသမား ႏိုင္မ်ဳိးေသြးကို လြန္ခဲ့တဲ့အပတ္က ေထာင္ေျပာင္းလိုက္ေၾကာင္း ႏိုင္မ်ဳိးေသြး၏ မိသားစုဝင္ႏွင့္ နီးစပ္သည့္ အသိုင္းအ၀ိုင္း ကေျပာသည္။
အင္းစိန္ေထာင္တြင္ ေထာင္က်ခံေနရေသာ မြန္ႏုိင္ငံေရးသမားေဟာင္း ႏိုင္မ်ဳိးေသြး အသက္ (၄၂) ႏွစ္ခန္႕ကို လြန္ခဲ့ေသာ ႏုိဝင္ဘာလ ၃၀ ရက္ေန႔မွစၿပီး အင္းစိန္ေထာင္မွ ပဲခူးတိုင္း သာယာဝတီေထာင္သို႕ ေျပာင္းေ႐ႊ႕လိုက္ၿပီျဖစ္္ေၾကာင္း ၄င္း၏ မိသားစုဝင္ႏွင့္ နီးစပ္သည့္အသိုင္းအ၀ိုင္းက ေျပာသည္။
ၿပီးခဲ့ေသာ ႏိုဝင္ဘာလမွစၿပီး ျမန္မာစစ္အစိုးရသည္ ႏုိင္ငံေရးအက်ဥ္းသားေပါင္း ၁၅၀ ခန္႕ကို ေထာင္ေျပာင္းေရႊ႕မႈမ်ား ျပဳလုပ္ခဲ့သည္ဟု ေအေအပီပီမွ အတည္ျပဳခဲ့သည္။
ႏုိင္မ်ဳိးေသြးသည္ ျမန္မာႏုိင္ငံေရးအက်ဥ္းသား ၂၁၆၃ ေယာက္ထဲမွ တစ္ဦးအပါအဝင္ျဖစ္ၿပီး အင္းစိန္ေထာင္တြင္ အက်ဥ္းခ်ခံေနရသူျဖစ္သည္။
ႏိုင္မ်ဳိးေသြးသည္ ၂၀၀၃ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ ႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ေခါင္းေဆာင္မ်ား လုပ္ၾကံမႈႏွင့္ မြန္ႏိုင္ငံေရးသမား ႏိုင္ယကၡႏွင့္အတူ ေထာင္ဒဏ္ တသက္တစ္ကြ်န္း ခ်မွတ္ခံရသူ ျဖစ္သည္။
ႏိုင္ယကၡသည္ မြန္ျပည္သစ္ပါတီ၏ စည္းရုံေရးသမားတစ္ဦးျဖစ္ၿပီး ျမန္မာစစ္ေထာက္လွမ္းေရးဘက္မွ ဦးမ်ဳိးခ်စ္(အမည္ရင္းမဟုတ္)ေခါင္းေဆာင္သည့္ လူတစ္စုမွ ႏုိင္မ်ဳိးေသြးအပါအဝင္ ႏုိင္ယကၡေခါင္းေဆာင္သည့္ လူတစ္ဖြဲ႕ကို ေထာင္ေခ်ာက္ဆင္ ဖမ္းဆီးခဲ့ျခင္းျဖစ္သည္။
ဦးမ်ဳိးခ်စ္သည္ ႏိုင္ယကၡႏွင့္ႏိုင္မ်ဳိးေသြးကုိ စီးပြားေရးလုပ္ရန္အတြက္ ရန္ကုန္သို႕ ေခၚသြားၿပီး အာဇာနည္ေန႕မေရာက္မီ ၂ ရက္အလိုတြင္ ထမင္းေကြၽးရန္အတြက္ အိမ္တစ္အိမ္သို႕ လွည့္ျဖားၿပီး ေခၚသြားခဲ့သည္။ အိမ္ထဲသုိ႕ေရာက္သည့္အခါ ျမန္မာေထာက္လွမ္းေရး အေယာက္၂၀ ခန္႕ အိမ္ေပၚ၌ ရွိေနၿပီး ႏိုင္ယကၡ ႏိုင္မ်ဳိးေသြးႏွင့္ အဖဲြ႕ဝင္ငါးဦးကို အာဇာနည္ကုန္းကို ေဖာက္ခဲြရန္လုပ္ၾကံမႈႏွင့္ ေထာက္လွမ္းေရးက ဖမ္းဆီးလိုက္သည္။
ေဖာက္ခြဲေရးပစၥည္းေတြနဲ႕အတူ အဏာပိုင္ေတြက ႐ုိက္ႏွက္ၿပီး ၄င္းတို႕၏ပစၥည္းျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း အတင္းလက္မွတ္ထိုးေစခဲ့သည္။ အာဏာပုိင္ေတြက႐ုံးတင္ စစ္ေဆးၿပီး ေသဒဏ္ ခ်မွတ္ခဲ့သည္။
ဗံုးေဖာက္ခြဲေရးကိစၥသည္ ႏိုင္ယကၡႏွင့္ႏိုင္မ်ဳိးေသြး၏ ၾကံစည္ခ်က္မဟုတ္ေၾကာင္း ဦးမ်ဳိးခ်စ္၏ အၾကံျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း တရားရုံးခ်ဳပ္ေ႐ွ႕ေန ႏိုင္ေငြရတို႕ အယူခံဝင္ၿပီးေနာက္ အာဏာပိုင္ေတြက ေသဒဏ္ခ်မွတ္ထားရာမွ ေထာင္ဒဏ္တစ္သက္တစ္ကြၽန္း ေျပာင္းလဲခ်မွတ္ခဲ့သည္။
Saturday, December 13, 2008
ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ႀကီးေစာဘုိျမ၏သားငယ္ ဗိုလ္ႀကီးေစာေနစိုးျမ ေနျပည္ေတာ္ေရာက္
NEJ/ ၁၄ ဒီဇင္ဘာ ၂၀၀၈
ကရင္အမ်ိဳးသားအစည္းအရုံး KNU ၏ ဥကၠ႒ေဟာင္းျဖစ္သူ (ကြယ္လြန္သူ) ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ႀကီးေစာဘုိျမ၏သားငယ္ ဗိုလ္ႀကီးေစာေနစိုးျမ ေခၚ ေမာင္ ေတးေလး သည္ ဒီဇင္ဘာ ၁၂ ရက္ေန႔က ထိုင္းႏိုင္ငံဘန္ေကာက္ၿမိဳ႕မွတဆင့္ ေလေၾကာင္းလိုင္းျဖင့္ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံထြက္ခြာသြားရာ ရန္ကုန္မွတဆင့္ ေနျပည္ေတာ္သို႔ ေရာက္ရွိသြားသည္ဟု မိသားစုက ေျပာသည္။
ဗိုလ္ႀကီးေစာေနစိုးျမ ေနျပည္ေတာ္သို႔ ေရာက္ရွိသြားသည့္ ကိစၥႏွင့္ပတ္သက္၍ ကရင္အမ်ိဳးသားအစည္းအရုံး KNU ၏ တြဲ ဘက္အတြင္းေရးမႉး(၁) ပဒိုေစာလွေငြက "ေနျပည္ေတာ္ကို ေရာက္သြားတယ္လို႔ က်ေနာ္တို႔ သတင္းၾကားတယ္။ သူနဲ႔အ တူ ပဒိုတူးတူးေလး ပါသြားတယ္လို႔ေျပာတယ္။ က်ေနာ္တို႔ စုံစမ္းၾကည့္တဲ့အခါမွာက်ေတာ့ ပဒိုတူးတူးေလးမပါဘူး။ ေမာင္ ေတးေလး တေယာက္ပဲ ေနျပည္ေတာ္ကို ေရာက္သြားတယ္။ သူ႔အေမဆီကိုေတာ့ ဖုန္းျပန္ဆက္တယ္လို႔ သိရတယ္။ ဘာ ေၾကာင့္သြားတယ္၊ ဘယ္သူနဲ႔သြားတယ္ဆိုတာကေတာ့ က်ေနာ္တို႔ အေသးစိပ္ စုံစမ္းတုန္းပဲရွိေသးတယ္"ဟု ေခတ္ၿပိဳင္သို႔ ေျပာသည္။
ဗိုလ္ႀကီးေစာေနစိုးျမသည္ ကရင္အမ်ိဳးသားလြတ္ေျမာက္ေရးတပ္မေတာ္ တပ္ရင္း(၂၀၂)၏ တပ္ခြဲမႉးျဖစ္ၿပီး ၎တပ္၏တပ္ရင္း မႉးမွာ ဒုတိယဗိုလ္မႉးႀကီး ေစာေဒးေဂျဖစ္သည္။ ကြယ္လြန္သူ ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ႀကီးေစာဘိုျမႏွင့္ ဇနီးဆရာမေနာ္လားဖိုး တို႔တြင္သား ေလးဦး၊ သမီးသုံးဦးရွိၿပီး ေစာေနစိုးျမသည္ ေျခာက္ဦးေျမာက္ျဖစ္သည္။ ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ႀကီးေဟာင္းေစာဘိုျမ၏ ဇနီးေနာ္လားဖိုးသည္ လက္ရွိကရင္အမ်ဳိးသမီးအစည္းအရံုး (KWO)အဖြဲ႔တြင္ဥကၠဌျဖစ္သည္။
ညီအစ္ကိုေမာင္ႏွမ ခုႏွစ္ဦးရွိသည့္အနက္ အစ္ကိုအႀကီးဆုံးျဖစ္သူ ယခင္တပ္ရင္း (၂၀၂)၏ တပ္ရင္းမႉးျဖစ္သူ ဒုတိယ ဗိုလ္မႉးႀကီး ေစာေနေကာ္ျမသည္ ယခုႏွစ္ဆန္း ပိုင္းက ဆီးခ်ိဳေရာဂါျဖင့္ ကြယ္လြန္သြားသည္။
Friday, December 12, 2008
(အရပ္သားသတင္းေထာက ္(civilian journalist) မွေပးပုိသည္)
Ethnic efforts not in vain: Harn Yawnghwe
|News - S.H.A.N.|
|Written by Hseng Khio Fah|
|Thursday, 11 December 2008|
| The recent award given to a detained Shan leader indicates that ethnic leaders are not forgotten and their dedication and their work are not in vain, according to Harn Yawnghwe, Director of the Brussels-based Euro-Burma Office (EBO) and Advisor to the Ethnic Nationalities Council (ENC).|
Khun Htun Oo, leader of the largest party in Shan State, sentenced to a 93-year jail sentence at Putao prison, Kachin State, was named the recipient of the Honorary Citizenship Award by Monza, a town in Italy near Milan on December 5. The ceremony was held on December 9 and the award was presented to Bodie Saw Min, Secretary of the EBO, on his behalf.
"This is how the world acknowledges our Shan leaders' efforts. They never give up their ideals even though they have been imprisoned," said Harn. "Our new generation must also be strong like them until democracy and genuine federalism are won whatever the dangers and difficulties are."
Khun Htun Oo is President of the Burma's second largest party Shan Nationalities League for Democracy (SNLD). He was arrested in 2005 together with Gen Hso Ten, leader of the ceasefire group Shan State Peace Council (SSPC), Sai Nood aka Sai Nyunt Lwin, SNLD General Secretary under several charges including defamation of the state, association with illegal parties and conspiracy against the state. All were separately imprisoned:
Maj-Gen Hso Ten 106 years Khamti prison
Khun Tun Oo (Hkun Htun Oo) 93 years Putao prison
Sai Nyunt Lwin, 85 years Kalay, Sagaing division.
Sai Hla Aung 79 years Kyaukphyu prison
U Myint Than 79 years Sandoway prison (died on 2 May 2006)
U Tun Nyo 79 years Buthidaung prison
U Nyi Nyi Moe 79 years Pakokku prison
Sai Myo Win Tun 79 years Myingyan prison
Khun Tun Oo's brother, Sao Oo Kya, was also sentenced to 13 years in prison. He is serving his time in Mandalay.
Thursday, December 11, 2008
ကိုတုိင္းရင္း သားအသံဝုိင္ေတာ္သူဝုိင္ေတ ာ္သားအားလုံးအတြက္ျဖစ္ပါသည္၊
Wednesday, December 10, 2008
The United States sent about $75 million in relief and the reclusive military junta in Myanmar allowed at least 100 U.S. flights after the storm slammed the Irrawaddy delta, killing more than 130,000 and leaving more than 2 million destitute.
Bush, speaking to the Council on Foreign Relations in New York to mark the 60th anniversary of the International Declaration of Human Rights, said the U.S. Agency for International Development would send $5 million more in aid.
"This assistance will support the efforts of nongovernmental organizations like the World Food Program and Save the Children to ensure access to clean water, adequate shelter, basic health services, and other essential needs in the most affected areas," she said.
She noted that a reporter from the BBC went to the delta recently and made an interesting discovery.
"We saw photographs of the shacks that the people who lived in the delta are building -- rebuilding to rebuild their homes, and they were built out of the rice sacks that were stacked with USAID and American flags," she said.
"So we do know that some of this relief we're sending into the cyclone area is getting to the people," Bush said.
Just a few weeks before she and her husband, President George W. Bush, leave the White House, Bush pledged she would keep pushing for democratic reforms in Myanmar, previously known as Burma, after leaving Washington.
"I'm going to pay, really, a lot of attention to these two issues, the international issues that I've worked on the most, both Afghanistan and Burma," she said.
Myanmar's military junta has refused to accept losing a 1990 election and has cracked down numerous times on pro-democracy demonstrators, killing thousands. (Reporting by Jeremy Pelofsky; Editing by Peter Cooney)
Myanmar at centre of elephant smuggling trade: report
6 hours ago
BANGKOK (AFP) — Myanmar is at the centre of an illegal trade in elephants and ivory, with more than 250 live animals smuggled out of the country in the past decade, a report said Wednesday.
Most of the elephants were destined for use in the tourist trekking industry in neighbouring Thailand, said the report by the wildlife trade monitoring network TRAFFIC.
Smuggling of live elephants and ivory is in "blatant contravention" of national laws and of the CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), the group said.
"Our research found evidence of corruption allowing the illicit smuggling of ivory and elephants to take place," Chris Shepherd, senior programme officer with TRAFFIC, was quoted as saying in a statement.
"Females and juvenile elephants are particularly targeted to supply the demand from the tourism industry in Thailand, where they are put to work in elephant trekking centres," said Shepherd.
Smugglers took elephants over the frontier by bribing border officials, the report said, citing one guard as saying he had charged up to 200 dollars per animal because he was saving up to fly to Germany for the 2006 World Cup.
Yet no cross-border trade of live elephants had been reported to CITES by either Myanmar or Thailand, and some traders said elephants had disappeared from parts of Myanmar owing to numbers captured for the live trade, it said.
A survey by the group of 14 markets and three border markets in Thailand and China, which both adjoin Myanmar, also found 9,000 pieces of ivory and 16 whole tusks for sale, it said.
Reports of elephant disappearances and the amount of ivory on sale "suggests that trade poses a significant threat to the survival of Asian elephants in Myanmar," said Vincent Nijman, a co-author of the report.
Myanmar has the largest elephant population in Southeast Asia, with an estimated 4,000 to 5,000 animals, the report said.
TRAFFIC and conservation group WWF called on authorities in Myanmar to work closely with enforcement officers in Thailand and China to address the illegal trade.
"Both Thailand and China must do much more to increase enforcement and crack down on this insidious trade," Susan Lieberman, director of the WWF international species programme, was quoted as saying in the TRAFFIC statement.
It called for greater monitoring of domestic elephant populations in Myanmar, including the use of microchip and tattoo-based identification systems to prevent illegal cross-border movement
ကခ်င္ျပည္နယ္ ပူတာအုိအက်ဥ္းေထာင္၌ အက်ဥ္းက်ခံေနရသူ သွ်မ္းေခါင္းေဆာင္ SNLD ဥကၠဌ စ၀္ခြန္ထြန္းဦး ကုိ အီတလီႏုိင္ငံ မြန္ဇာၿမိဳ႕ေတာ္၀န္က ဂုဏ္ထူးေဆာင္ႏုိင္ငံသားဆုခ်ီးျမင့္ခဲ့ပါသည္။ ယခုလ ၉ ရက္ေန႔က မြန္ဇာ ၿမိဳ႕ေတာ္ခန္းမ၌ က်င္းပ ေသာဆုေပးပြဲ အခမ္းအနားကုိ ဦးခြန္ထြန္းဦး ကုိယ္စား ဘရပ္ဆဲလ္ အေျခစုိက္ ဥေရာပ ျမန္မာ႐ုံး လက္ေထာက္ ညြန္ၾကားေရးမွဴး ဦးဘုိဒီေဇာ္မင္းက တက္ေရာက္ လက္ခံခဲ့ပါသည္။
၄င္းနဲ႔ပတ္သက္ၿပီး ဥေရာပ-ျမန္မာ႐ုံး ညြန္ၾကားေရးမွဴး စ၀္ဟန္ေယာင္ေဟြ႔က “ က်ေနာ္တို႔ သွ်မ္းေခါင္းေဆာင္ ေတြတကယ့္ကုိ ကုိယ္က်ဳိးစြန္႔ အနစ္နာခံခဲ့တယ္ဆုိတာ ကမၻာက အသိအမွတ္ၿပဳလုိက္တာပါဘဲ။ ႏွစ္႐ွည္ေထာင္ က်ခံ ေနရေပမဲ့ က်န္းမာေရး ေကာင္းဖုိ႔အဓိက ျဖစ္ေနတဲ့အတြက္ စိတ္ဓါတ္မက်ဖုိ႔၊ က်န္းမာေရးဂ႐ုစုိက္ဖုိ႔ က်ေနာ္ က အားေပးစကားေျပာခ်င္ပါတယ္။ ဆက္လုပ္စရာ႐ွိတာကုိ က်ေနာ္တို႔ေနာင္လာေနာက္သားေတြ ဆက္လုပ္သြား မယ္လုိ႔လဲ ေျပာခ်င္ပါတယ္” လုိ႔ေျပာပါတယ္။
သွ်မ္းေခါင္းေဆာင္မ်ား ႏွစ္႐ွည္ေထာင္ဒဏ္က်ခံရမႈေၾကာင့္ အမ်ဳိးသားေရးတက္ႂကြလႈပ္႐ွားသူ သွ်မ္းမ်ဳိးဆက္သစ္ လူငယ္မ်ား အနည္းငယ္တုန္႔ေႏွးသြားျခင္းႏွင့္ပတ္သက္၍ စ၀္ဟန္ေယာင္ေဟြ႔က “ျဖစ္ႏုိင္တယ္။ အမ်ဳိးသားေရး တက္ႂကြလႈပ္႐ွားသူတုိင္းကုိ စစ္အစုိးရက ႏွစ္႐ွည္ေထာင္ဒဏ္ေတြေပးၿပီး မိသားစုေထာင္၀င္စာေတြ႔ဖုိ႔ခက္တဲ့ ဗမာ ျပည္ နယ္စြန္နယ္ဖ်ားကုိ ပုိ႔ပုိ႔ပစ္တာဟာ မ်ဳိးဆက္သစ္လူငယ္ေတြႏုိင္ငံေရး၊ အမ်ဳိးသားေရးမလႈပ္႐ွားရဲေအာင္ လုပ္ျပတာျဖစ္တယ္။ ဒါေပမဲ့ က်ေနာ္တုိ႔ ေၾကာက္သည္ျဖစ္ေစ မေၾကာက္သည္ျဖစ္ေစ ျမန္မာျပည္ႀကီးဒီမုိကေရစီ မရမခ်င္း၊ စစ္မွန္ေသာ ျပည္ေထာင္စုႀကီးမျဖစ္မခ်င္း၊ စစ္အာဏာ႐ွင္မက်ဆုံးမခ်င္း က်ေနာ္တုိ႔တုိင္းရင္းသား ေတြဟာဖိႏွိပ္ၿမဲဖိႏွိပ္ခံေနရဦးမွာဘဲ။ ဒါေၾကာင့္ေၾကာက္႐ြံ႔လုိ႔မေနနဲ႔၊ တုန္႔ေႏွးလုိ႔မေနနဲ႔၊ လုပ္စရာ႐ွိတာလုပ္သြားပါ။ သူမ်ားကုိသြားအားကုိးေနလုိ႔မျဖစ္ဘူး။ ကုိယ့္ကုိယ္ကုိ ျပန္အားကုိးရမယ္။ ကုိယ့္အခ်င္းခ်င္း စည္းလုံးရမယ္။ စည္း စည္းလုံးလုံးနဲ႔ လုပ္စရာ႐ွိတာလုပ္သြားရင္ ကုိယ္ေမွ်ာ္မွန္းတဲ့ပန္းတုိင္ မလြဲမေသြေရာက္မွာဘဲ။ ယခုနအဖရဲ႕ လုပ္ ရပ္ဟာ ၿခိမ္းေျခာက္တာသက္သက္ဘဲျဖစ္တယ္။ လုပ္စရာ႐ွိတာဆက္လုပ္သြားရင္ သူတုိ႔လဲ ဘယ္လုိမွမတတ္ ႏုိင္ပါဘူး။ က်ေနာ္တုိ႔ ေခါင္းေဆာင္ေတြလဲ အဖမ္းခံရသည့္တုိင္ေအာင္ မေၾကာက္မ႐ြံ႔ စိတ္ဓါတ္ႀကံ႔ခုိင္ေနေသး တာဘဲ။ သူတုိ႔လမ္းျပတဲ့အတုိင္း ဆက္လုပ္သြားဖုိ႔ က်ေနာ္တုိက္တြန္းအားေပးခ်င္တယ္” ဆက္ေျပာပါတယ္။
ယခုလက္႐ွိအေျခအေနသည္ ႏုိင္ငံေရး၊ စီးပြါးေရး အခက္အခဲၾကံဳေနရသည့္အေျခအေနျဖစ္ေသာ္လည္း လြတ္ ေျမာက္သည့္ေန႔ တစ္ေန႔႐ွိမည္မလြဲဟုယုံၾကည္ေၾကာင္း၊ မတရားအက်ဥ္းခ်ခံရသည့္ ျမန္မာဒီမုိကေရစီေခါင္း ေဆာင္မ်ားအေၾကာင္းကုိလည္း ယခုကဲ့ သုိ႔ ကမၻာကသိေအာင္ မိမိတုိ႔အေနျဖင့္ ဆက္လက္ ႀကိဳးပမ္းသြားမည္ျဖစ္ ေၾကာင္း ဦးဟန္ေယာင္ေဟြ႔ကေျပာျပသည္။
၈၈ မ်ဳိးဆက္ေက်ာင္းသားေခါင္းေဆာင္ ကုိကုိႀကီး ၊ ၂၀၀၇ ေ႐ႊ၀ါေရာင္ေတာ္လွန္ေရး ဦးေဆာင္ဆရာေတာ္ အ႐ွင္ဂမၻီရႏွင့္လူ႔အခြင့္ အေရး လႈပ္႐ွားသူ မစုစုေႏြးတုိ႔လည္း ဂုဏ္ထူးေဆာင္ဆု ခ်ီးျမင့္ျခင္းခံခဲ့ရဖူးသည္။ အီတလီႏုိင္ငံ ျပည္သူလူထုႏွင့္ အစုိးရတုိ႔သည္ အဖိႏွိပ္ခံ ျမန္မာျပည္သူမ်ားႏွင့္ တသားတည္း႐ွိေနေၾကာင္း ျပသသည့္အေနျဖင့္ ေက်ာင္းသား ရဟန္း႐ွင္လူ ျပည္သူအား စစ္ အစုိးရဖမ္းဆီးကာ ႏွစ္႐ွည္ေထာင္ခ်ေနသည္ကုိ အီတလီႏုိင္ငံအေနႏွင့္ ကန္႔ကြက္ေၾကာင္း အေၾကာင္းၾကားစာေပးပုိ႔ဦးမည္ဟု လည္းသိရပါသည္။
သွ်မ္းျပည္မ်ဳိးဆက္သစ္ေခါင္းေဆာင္မ်ား ဦးေဆာင္က်င္းပသည့္ ၂၀၀၅ ခုႏွစ္ ေဖေဖၚ၀ါရီလ ၇ ရက္ သွ်မ္းျပည္ နယ္ ေန႔ ညစာစားပြဲ ကို အေၾကာင္းၿပဳ၍ ေဖေဖၚ၀ါရီလ ၈ ရက္ႏွင့္ ၉ ရက္ေန႔မ်ား၌ SNLD ဥကၠဌ စ၀္ခြန္ထြန္းဦးႏွင့္ အတြင္းေရးမွဴး ဦးစုိင္းညြန္႔လြင္တုိ႔ကုိ ရန္ကုန္ၿမိဳ႕ေနအိမ္၌၀င္ေရာက္ဖမ္းဆီးခဲ့သည္။ သွ်မ္းျပည္အတုိင္ပင္ခံ ေကာင္ စီဖြဲ႔စည္းမႈ စြပ္စြဲခ်က္အျပင္အျခားေသာ အမႈေပါင္းမ်ား စြာျဖင့္ေထာင္ ဒဏ္ ၉၃ ႏွစ္ စီရင္၍ ဥကၠဌႀကီးအား ရာသီဥတု ဆုိး၀ါးလွေသာ ကခ်င္ျပည္နယ္ပူတာအုိေထာင္သုိ႔ပုိ႔လုိက္သည္။ ထုိ႔အျပင္စစ္အစုိး ရတုိ႔ ဆက္တုိက္ ဖမ္းဆီးခဲ့ေသာ SSA အပစ္ရပ္ ေခါင္းေဆာင္ ဗုိလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေဆထဲန္႔၊ စုိင္းညြန္႔လြင္ အပါအ၀င္ ၂၀၀၆ ေမလ က သံတြဲေထာင္၌ ကြယ္လြန္သြားေသာ သွ်မ္းျပည္မ်ဳိးဆက္သစ္ ေခါင္းေဆာင္ ဆရာဦးျမင့္သန္းႏွင့္ အဖြဲ႔၀င္မ်ားကုိ ေထာင္ ဒဏ္ ၇၅ မွ ၁၀၆ ႏွစ္အထိ ႏွစ္႐ွည္ခ်မွတ္၍ ရာသီဥတုဆုိး၀ါးလွေသာ ျမန္မာျပည္နယ္စြန္ နယ္ဖ်ား အသီးသီးသုိ႔ ပုိ႔ေဆာင္ခဲ့သည္။
Wednesday, December 3, 2008
(ဓါတ္ပုံမ်ားသည္ Civilian Journalist အရပ္သားသတင္းေထာက္တစ္ေယာက္မွေပးပုိ.သည္)
Monday, December 1, 2008
ညြန္ေပါင္းပါတီသုံးပါတီျဖစ္ေသာ People Power Party, Chart Thai Party, Matchima Thipataya Party အားမဲအတု မ်ားလိမ္ညာမွဳျဖင့္ထုိင္းဥပေဒတရားရုံကဖ်က္သိမ္းလုိက္ျပီး၎တုိ.၏အလုပ္မွဳေဆာင္ဘုတ္အဖြဲ.မ်ားကုိလည္းႏုိင္ငံေရးလုပ္ပုိင္ ခြင့္(၅)ႏွစ္ပိတ္ပင္ခံရပါသည္၊အရင္တုန္းကလည္းဤဥပေဒပိုဒ္မနဲ.သာတပ္ဆင္ဦးေဆာင္ေသာထုိင္းရက္ထုိင္းပါတီကုိဖ်က္သိ မ္းခဲ့ဘူးပါသည္၊
အစုိးရလုိလာေသာအကၤ်ီအနီးေရာင္အုပ္စုကတရားရုံ၏ဆုံျဖတ္ခ်က္ကုိမေက်နပ္၍တစုံတရာလုပ္ရန္ျပင္ဆင္ေနတဲ့အခ်ိန္မွာ တရားရုံက(၁၅)မိနစ္အတြင္းလူစုခြဲရန္အမိန္.ထုတ္ျပန္ပါသည္၊လူစုမခြဲပါကတရားရုံကုိမထီးမဲ့ျမင္ျဖင့္အေရးယူခံရမယ္ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္း ေညၾကာတဲ့အခါခ်က္ခ်င္းပင္လူစုခြဲၾကသည္၊ျပည္သူအင္းအားပါတီဖ်က္သိမ္းခံရျပီးေနာက္ဒုဝန္ၾကီးခ်ဳပ္ျဖစ္ေသာ ခ်ာဝရတ္ က်န္ဝီရကုန္ Chaovarat Chanweerakul ယာယီဝန္ၾကီးခ်ဳပ္ျဖစ္လာပါသည္၊
ဒီလုိႏုိင္ငံေရးပါတီမ်ားဖ်က္သိမ္းခံရျခင္းသည္ ထုိင္ျပည္သူ.မဟာမိတ္အဖြဲ.အတြက္ေအာင္ပြဲတစ္ရပ္အျဖစ္ေၾကညာပါသည္၊ ၎၏ေမွ်ာ္လင့္ထားေသာႏုိင္ငံေရးစနစ္အသစ္တစ္ရပ္ဖန္တီးႏုိင္ေရးအတြက္ဆက္လက္တုိက္ပြဲဝင္သြားမယ္လုိ.ေျပာပါသည္၊ သူတုိ.အေနနဲ.ေလဆိပ္သိမ္းပုိက္မွဳကုိရုပ္သိမ္းမည္ျဖစ္ျပီးကုိယ္.အိမ္ကုိယ္ျပန္ၾကမယ္လုိ.ေၾကညာပါသည္၊ဒါေပမဲ့အခုအခ်ိန္အထိ ေေတာ့ေအာင္ပြဲခံေပ်ာ္ပြဲရြင္ပြဲမ်ားလုပ္ေနၾကပါသည္၊ဝမ္းေျမာက္ပီတိျဖင့္ငုိးၾကသူမ်ားငုိးျပီးေအာင္ပြဲခံေအာ္သံမ်ားဆူညံေနပါသည္ သူတုိ.အေနနဲ. ကုိယ္အိမ္ကုိျပန္ၾကျပီးလမ္းခြဲေတာ့မည့္ႏွဳတ္ဆက္စကားမ်ားတစ္ေယာက္ျပီးတစ္ေယာက္စင္ေပၚတက္ေဟာ ေျပာေနၾကပါသည္၊
တစ္ခ်ဳိ.ၾကေတာ့ စီးပြားေရးပုိင္ရွင္မ်ားျဖစ္သည့္အားေလွ်ာက္ အကယ္၍မဟာမိတ္အဖြဲ.ဝင္မ်ားကက်မတုိ.ေနရာအလည္လာ ေရာက္ရင္ပုိက္ဆံမယူအခမဲ့ၾကဳိဆုိေပးပါမယ္လုိ.အခ်င္းခ်င္ဖိတ္ေခၚၾကပါသည္၊အမ်ဳိးသမီးတစ္ေယာက္ကေတာ့၊က်မဟာခ်ဳမ္း ဘြန္းရထားဘူတာမွားငွက္ေပ်ာ္သီးေရာင္ေနပါသည္၊မဟာမိတ္အဖြဲ.ဝင္မ်ားလာေရာက္လည္ပတ္ရင္ၾကဳိက္သေလာက္ဝင္စား ႏုိင္ပါသည္၊ေနာက္တစ္ေယာက္ကေတာ့၊က်မဟာဖူးကတ္မွာဟုိတယ္ပုိင္ရွင္ပါ၊က်မဟုိတယ္ေရွ့မွာ မဟာမိတ္မ်ား၏သေကၤတ ျဖစ္ေသာလက္သီးခုတ္ပုံကုိအၾကီးေဆာက္လုပ္ေပးပါမယ္၊က်မဟုိတယ္မွာမဟာမိတ္မ်ားလာေရာက္တည္ခုိရင္အခမဲ့ဝန္ေဆာင္ ေပးပါမယ္လုိ.ေၾကညာၾကပါသည္၊ဒါဟာ(၇)လနီးပါးရက္ၾကာေသာတုိက္ပြဲကုိေအာင္ပြဲခံတဲ့အေနနဲ.ဝမ္းေျမာက္ဝမ္းသာဆင္ႏြဲ ေနၾကတဲ့ျမင္ကြင္းပါ၊
မဟာမိတ္တုိ.၏တုိက္ပြဲဟာ အစုိးရလုိလာေသာျပဳိင္ဘက္အုပ္စု၏အၾကမ္းဖက္မွဳေၾကာင့္(၄)ေယာက္ေသးဆုံျပီး(၆၀၀)နီးပါးဒ ဏ္ရာရရွိပါသည္၊သူတုိ.လုိလာေသာႏုိင္ငံေရးအသစ္ေပၚထြန္းေရးအတြက္ကူးေျပာင္းကာလမွာမ်က္ေျခမျပတ္ေစာင့္ၾကည့္ သြားမယ္လုိ.ေျပာဆုိေနၾကပါသည္၊
People Power, Chart Thai and Matchima Thipataya parties disbanded
Published on December 2, 2008
The Constitution Court on Tuesday ruled to disband three coalition parties, People Power, Chart Thai and Matchima Thipataya, and banned the three's party executives from electoral process for five years.
The high court held the three parties for accountability on electoral fraud involving party executives, Yongyuth Tiyapairat of People Power, Monthien Songpracha of Chart Thai and Sunthorn Wilawan of Matchima Thipataya.
In the fraud case linked to People Power Party, the high court cited the Yongyuth conviction by the Supreme Court as the ground to penalise the ruling party.
For cases linked to Chart Thai and Matchima Thipataya, it invoked the rulings by the Election Commission as the basis to punish the two parties.
The nine presiding judges reached unanimous decisions against People Power and Matchima Thipataya parties. And they formed the eight-to-one decision to punish Chart Thai.
The high court opined that the punishment by disbandment was mandatory as sanctioned by Article 237 of the Constitution and that it had no leeway to selectively punish the party executives on the individual basis.
Wednesday, November 26, 2008
OPINION/ANALYSIS; Toward A Democratic Change in Burma
By Siri Mon Chan November 26, 2008Burma is a multi-ethnic country. There are many ethnic nationalities such as Chin, Kachin, Karen, Mon, Arakanese, Shan and Burmese reside in Burma. Southern Part of Burma was occupied by the British in 1824, and the whole Burma was colonized by the British between 1885 to 1948. Burma gained independence in 1948, and until 1962, it was under the political framework of liberal democratic parliamentary system. General Ne Win took power in March 1962, and until 1988 General Ne Win under the political system of “Burmese Way to Socialism” led Burma. In 1988, People Power movements (known as 8888, 8 August, 1988) has successfully dismantled the one party rule of Burmese Socialist Programme Party (BSPP).
At the time, it seemed that the February 1986 People Power Revolution in the Philippines was about to be repeated in Burma. People in Burma believed that the international community, especially the United Nations and western governments, would somehow intervene on their behalf, since the military-socialist regime had collapsed and the people had clearly expressed their strong desire for a change. Unfortunately before a transition to democratic system was successfully completed, Burmese military led by General Saw Maung staged a coup on 18 September, 1988, killing thousands of pro-democracy demonstrators.
Since 1988, Burma’s neighbours and, other significant powers did not respond constructively to Burma’s political crisis. Despite the bloodbath, Burma’s neighbours and the international community did not act in a manner Burmese public expected. While western world and India condemned the massacre and froze or cut back on economic relations, neighbouring countries particularly China, Thailand, and Singapore, recognized the military regime, SLORC (State Law and Order Restoration Council). Many Burmese believe, and still believe that if the international community, including Burma’s neighbours and the UN system, withheld recognition, the coup would have collapsed.
In a bid to ease the tension in the country, the military government promised to hold a multi-party election on 27 May 1990, and in that general election, National League for Democracy (NLD) led by Aung San Su Kyi won a landslide victory (392 of 485- parliamentary seats). However, the military government still refused to hand over power to the democratically elected government. Instead , SLORC issued its Declaration No. 1/90 on 27 July, 1990. The steps set out in Declaration No. 1/90 followed the refusal of the army since 1988 to concede power to civilian under an interim constitution. Rather, the military government would hold a National Convention to draft a constitution. The timing of SLORC Declaration No. 1/90 was apparently intended to pre-empt the results of a meeting of NLD parliamentary members held in Rangoon on 28 and 29 July.
Responses from Other Asian Nations
In 1988, India was highly critical of the SLORC (State Law and Order Restoration Council). But since Rangoon has played a very clever and successful game with the two regional rivals, China and India, SLORC was successful in manipulating New Delhi’s fear of a major Chinese military presence in Burma and obtaining Indian cooperation on a number of issues.
In fact, since 1988 China was on of the a few countries that has exercised the greatest economic and strategic influence in Burma. Steady Chinese economic support to the SLORC, and then SPDC (State Peace and Development Council) gives the junta the confidence to crush the opposition, knowing that it can thumb its nose at foreign criticism and sanctions.
The absence of criticism of Burmese military regime’s actions by neighbouring Southeast Asian governments and China has been underscored by cross border collaboration and assistance from Thailand and China. Expanding trade with these countries have been essential not only for economic growth but also for military government status.
Japan’s policy of ‘quiet dialogue’ is essentially constructive engagement, but sensitively tuned to the reactions of Tokyo’s allies in the west. It is, in fact, the middle-of-the road brand of constructive engagement. Unlike western countries, Japan has insisted that its lines of communication remain open to military regime and that a Japanese economic presence – in the form of very limited foreign aid and private investment – is needed to prevent Burma’s isolation.
India’s response to Burma has been complex. In the wake of 1988 political crisis and the SLORC’s crackdown on pro-democracy demonstrators, India was the only Asian country to express, through official channels, criticism of SLORC and sympathy for the democracy movement. The state-owned All-India Radio (AIR) broadcast strong criticism of the new regime in Burma, and Indian government welcomed Burma Student refugees with far greater hospitality than did Thailand.
By the mid-1990s,, however, New Delhi initiated a more conciliatory policy toward its eastern neighbours. This was because, like Southeast Asian countries and Japan, New Delhi also feared Beijing’s growing influence over Burma and hence implement its ‘Look East Policy’.
Responses From the US
On July 29 2003,President Bush signed into law the “Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act” a much stronger set of economic sanctions than the non-retroactive ban on American investments passed by President Bill Clinton in 1997. The 2003 sanctions comprise four main components;
(1) an extension of visa ban on officials of the SPDC (the State Peace and Development Council) and the USDA( the Union Solidarity and Development Association),
(2) a freeze on the US assets of Burmese officials,
(3) ban on financial transactions between American parties and “entities of Rangoon Regime”,
(4) an embargo on all imports from Burma to the US.
Because most major economic enterprises, including banks, are owned by or closely connected to the SPDC, the measures were designed to hit hard at the military regime’s economic foundation in order to persuade it to release Aung San Suu Kyi and make genuine progress towards democracy.
The purpose of US sanctions is two folds – (1) As a Symbolic Expression ( to express disapproval of the regime’s objectionable behaviour; giving moral support to the democratic opposition), and (2) As Behaviour Modification (to force the regime, through negative reinforcement, to change that behaviour).
As a symbolic gesture, the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act was effective insofar as it helped focus international attention on Burma. But, the second dimension, behaviour modification, was not as effective as intended.
It appeared that sanctions cannot work as ‘behaviour modification’ unless they are universally enforced. On the other hand, the Asian commitment to ‘constructive engagement’ since 1988 has also no positive impact on Burma either.
The United Nations Response
The United Nations system also did not work in favor of Burma’s change to democracy. Russia and China always vetoes resolution on Burma. On 10 January, 2007, Russia and China vetoes a draft UNSC resolution that would have urged Burma to ease repression and release political pressures. 15- member Council, France, Italy, Belgium, Slovakia, Ghana and Peru joined the United kingdom and the United States who put forward the resolution. But South Africa Joined Russia and China in voting ‘No’. Three other elected members, Indonesia, Qatar and Congo, abstained. A resolution that would set out key actions Burma rulers must take to reduce the threat to peace and security in the region and provide a better life for their people. The draft resolution also called on the regime to cease military attacks against civilians in ethnic minority regions. It also underscore the urgent need for Burma to allow international aid organizations to operate without restrictions.
Without effective and constructive response there is no sign of military government making a move to a democratic change. The military regime went ahead with its referendum amidst the UN and international community’s calls to abandon after the devastating cyclone. The military regime claims that 92.4 percent of voters approved a military back constitution held at a referendum on 10 May 2008. The new constitution is widely regarded as undemocratic and unconstitutional as the 25-precent of parliamentary seats reserved for the military and the president of the country must have military experiences. Important ministries such as Defence, Internal Affairs and Border Affairs must go to the military.
In conclusion, it is apparent that both sanctions and ‘constructive engagement’ policy are not a constructive response to the Burma’s political crisis since 1988. For any sort of policy to be effective, Burma’s neighbours and other significant powers need to work together. Perhaps with the United Nations in a coordinating role, to develop a unified policy that will reduce the military regime to play one country off another like playing between India and China with its fear game. Sanctions also cannot work unless they are universally applied. On the other hand, the ASEAN’s commitment to ‘constructive engagement’ since 1988 has also no positive impact on Burma either.
(This paper was presented at a seminar on Asia-Pacific Security at the Australian Defence Force Academy)
Seekins, D.M. (2005). ‘Burma and U.S. Sanctions: Punishing an Authoritarian Regime’, Asian Survey, vol.55, no.3, pp.437-452.
Seekins, D.M.(1997). ‘Burma-China Relations: Playing with Fire’, Asian Survey, vol.37, no.6, pp.525-539.
Taylor, R.H. (1991). ‘Myanmar 1990: New Era or Old?’, Southeast Asian Affairs, vol.18, pp.199-218.
Yawnghe, C.T.(1995). ‘The Depoliticization of the Political’, in Muthiah Alagappa (ed), Political Legitimacy in Southeast Asia: The Quest for Moral Authority, Stanford University Press, Stanford.
ဗုံေဖာက္မွဳမ်ားႏွင့္ေသနတ္ပစ္ခတ္မွဳမ်ားေၾကာင့္ဟုိတယ္ႏွစ္လုံးကေနမီးခုိးမီးေငြ.ေတြပ်ံ.ႏွံ.လ်က္ပါ၊ထူဆန္းတာကေတာ့၊အၾကမ္းဖက္ သမားေတြဟာသူတုိ.၏အသက္အႏၱရာယ္ကုိလုံးဝပဓာနမထားဘဲကမ္းကုန္ေအာင္ရမ္းကားရက္စက္ေနသည္ကုိေတြ.ရပါသည္၊သူတုိ.မွာအႏု ျမဴလက္နက္ေတြ၊စက္ေသနတ္ေတြကုိင္ေဆာင္ထားပါသည္ဟုမ်က္ျမင္သူမ်ားကေျပာပါသည္၊
အေမရိကန္အစုိးရအေနနဲ.အေျခအေနကုိအနီးကပ္ေစာင့္ၾကည့္ေနျပီးလုိအပ္ရင္အကူအညီေတြေပးမည္လုိ.ေျပာပါသည္၊အေမရိကန္ႏုိင္ငံ သားမ်ားအႏၱရာယ္ဆုိက္ေရာက္ေနတဲ့အေျခအေနကုိတုိင္ၾကားဆက္သြယ္ႏုိင္ရန္ ဟတ္လုိင္းဖုန္းတစ္ခုဖြင့္ထားပါသည္၊ U.S. hotline
ဟုိတယ္မွာတည္ခုိးေနတဲ့လူအမ်ားစုဟာ စီးပြားေရးသမားေတြ၊မင္းသားမင္းသမီးေတြ၊အဆင့္ျမင့္သူေဌးေတြျဖစ္ၾကသည္၊ဟုိတယ္တည္ခုိးသူ တစ္ဝက္ေလာက္ဟာႏုိင္ငံျခားသားမ်ားျဖစ္ပါသည္၊အၾကမ္းဖက္သမားလွဳပ္ရွားမွဳေစာင့္ၾကည့္သူမ်ားက ဒါဟာအေမရိကန္သမၼတသစ္အုိဘာ မာအတြက္စိန္ေခၚခံရမည္.နမူနာအေျခအေနတစ္ခုဘဲလုိ.သုံးသပ္သြားပါသည္၊
ဒီအၾကမ္းဖက္စီးနင္းတဲ့လုပ္ရပ္ဟာ MUJAHINDIN မူဂ်ာဟိန္ဒင္းအဖြဲ.၏လက္ခ်က္ျဖစ္ေၾကာင္းေျပာဆုိပါသည္၊
Tuesday, November 25, 2008
္သိမ္းခံရျခင္းႏွင့္ပါတီအဖြဲ.ဝင္မ်ားႏုိင္ငံေရးလုပ္ပုိင္ခြင္.တားျမစ္ခံရျခင္းကုိအက်ဳိးသက္ေရာက္ေစခဲ့သည္၊ထုိ.အျပင္၊ဘုရင္စနစ္ ႏွင့္ဘုရင္၏အတုိင္ပင္ခံအမတ္မ်ား၏လုပ္ပုိင္ခြင္.အာဏာကုိက်ယ္ျပန္.စြာတုိးခ်ဲ.ထားပါသည္၊အကယ္၍ယင္ဥပေဒကုိအထက္ လြႊတ္ေတာ္ႏွင့္ေအာက္လႊတ္ေတာ္အမတ္မ်ား၏မဲအမ်ားစုျဖင့္ျပင္ဆင္ခြင့္ရရင္ ဝန္ၾကီးခ်ဳပ္ေဟာင္းတပ္ဆင္ထုိင္းႏုိင္ငံျပန္လာႏုိင္ျခင္း ႏွင့္ႏုိင္ငံေရးလုပ္ပုိင္ခြင္.ပိတ္ပင္ခံထားရေသာသူ၏ပါတီဝင္မ်ားကုိႏုိင္ငံ ေရးျပန္လည္လုပ္ပုိင္ခြင္.ရျခင္း၏အက်ဳိးမ်ားသက္ေရာက္မွာျဖစ္ပါသည္၊ထုိ.ေၾကာင့္၊ ယင္ဥပေဒျပင္ဆင္ခ်က္ကုိလုံးဝမျပဳလုပ္ႏုိင္ ေရးအတြက္ပီေအဒီအဖြဲ.ဦးေဆာင္ျပီးဆန္.က်င္ဆႏၵျပျခင္းျဖစ္ပါသည္၊
ပီေအဒီဦးေဆာင္ေသာလက္ရွိဝန္ၾကီးခ်ဳပ္ဆြန္းခ်ဳိင္းေဝါင္စဝြပ္ႏွဳတ္ထြက္ေရး၊ဥပေဒျပင္ဆင္ခ်က္ဆန္.က်င္ေရးႏွင့္ႏုိင္ငံေရးစန စ္သစ္တစ္ခုဖန္းတီးေရးလွဳပ္ရွားမွဳမ်ားအရွိန္ျပင္းေနတဲ့အခ်ိန္မွားဝန္ၾကီးခ်ဳပ္ဆြန္းခ်ဳိင္းကပဲရူႏုိင္ငံတြင္ျပဳလုပ္ေနေသာေအပက္ ထိပ္သီးအစည္းအေဝးကုိတက္ေရာက္ေနပါသည္၊တစ္ခ်ိန္တည္မွာပင္၊ဒီေန.ဗုဒၶဟူးေန.၊အခ်ိန္(၁)နာရီေလာက္တြင္ ဝန္ၾကီးခ်ဳပ္ကသုဝဏၰဘူမိေလဆိပ္မွာျပန္လာဆင္းေရာက္မယ္လုိ.သတင္းရွရွိထားသျဖင့္ေသာင္းနဲခ်ီးေသာပီေအဒီအဖြဲ.ေတြက
ထုိကဲ့သုိ.ပိတ္ပင္ထားသည္ကုိမေက်နပ္ေသာအစုိးရလုိလာသူမ်ားကဗုံနဲ.ပစ္ခဲ့ရာဆက္တုိက္ဗုံေလလုံးေပါက္ကြဲခဲ့ပါသည္၊ဒဏ္ရာရ ရရွိသူေပါင္း(၁၆)ေယာက္ရွိသြားျပီးျဖစ္ပါသည္၊သုဝဏၰဘူမိေလဆိပ္၏ထြက္ေပါက္အားလုံးကုိပီေအဒီအဖြဲ.မ်ားပိတ္ပင္ထားသ ျဖင့္ေလယာဥ္မ်ားပ်ံသန္းဆင္းေရာက္မွဳမ်ားကုိလည္လုံးဝရပ္စဲလုိက္ရျပီးျဖစ္ပါသည္၊ပီေအဒီအဖြဲ.အေနနဲ.ဝန္ၾကီးခ်ဳပ္ဆြန္းခ်ဳိင္း ႏွဳတ္မထြက္မခ်င္းေလဆိပ္ကေနထြက္ခြာမယ္မဟုတ္ဘူးလုိ.ေၾကညာထားပါသည္၊အစုိး၇လုိလာသူမ်ားနဲ.ေထာက္ခံသူမ်ားအ ၾကားအၾကမ္းဖက္တုိက္ခုိက္မွဳမ်ားမျဖစ္ပြားရန္ထုိင္းရဲႏွင့္စစ္တပ္မ်ားကအနီးကပ္ေစာင့္ေနပါသည္၊
ထုိင္းစစ္တပ္ကဘက္မလုိက္ရပ္တည္သြားမယ္လုိ.ေျပာဆုိေနေပမဲ့အစုိးရဘက္မွာရပ္တည္ေနပါသည္၊ထုိင္းရဲတပ္ဖြဲ.အမ်ားစုက အစုိးရဘက္မွာလုံးဝရပ္တည္ေနဆဲပါ၊ဒါေပမဲ့၊အလတ္တန္းလူတန္းစာထုိင္းျပည္သူလူထုနဲ.ထုိင္းေလတပ္ဖြဲ.တုိ.ကပီေအဒီအဖြဲ. ကုိေထာက္ခံေနပါသည္၊ဒါေပမဲ.၊ထုိင္းစစ္တပ္နဲ.ရဲတပ္ဖြဲ.ေတြကအၾကမ္းဖက္မွဳလုပ္လာမယ့္လကၡဏာလုံးဝမေတြ.ေသးပါ၊ ေအာက္တုိဘာလ(၇)ရက္ေန.တုန္းကထုိင္းရဲေတြအၾကမ္းဖက္ႏွိမ္းနင္းမွဳကုိလူႏွစ္ေယာက္ေသးဆုံးျပီး၄၀၀ေက်ာ္ဒဏ္ရာရရွိခဲ့ သျဖင့္ထုိင္းမိဘုရားအပါအဝင္ထုိင္းျပည္သူလူထုအမ်ားစုကလက္မခံႏုိင္တဲ့ရွတ္ခ်ေအာ္သံမ်ားထြက္ေပၚခဲ့ပါသည္၊
AOT also has provided a hotline number for inquiries: 02-1321882 and 02-1321888. However, an AOT official said the lines soon became jammed.
For THAI flight information, the following number 02-3561111 has been provided.
Saturday, November 22, 2008
အမ်ဳိးသားေန.တြင္တစ္ကုိယ္ေတာ္ဆႏၵျပမွဳျဖစ္ပြား၊မင္းကုိႏုိင္ႏွင့္ႏုိင္ငံေရးအက်ဥ္းသား မ်ားအားလုံးလႊတ္ေပး ဟုေတာင္းဆုိ၊
Sole Myanmar protester demands activists' release
2 hours ago
YANGON, Myanmar (AP) — A lone demonstrator staged a silent protest in front of detained pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi's party headquarters Saturday demanding the military government free all student activists as the country celebrated its National Day.
The holiday commemorates a boycott by Yangon University students 88 years ago in defiance of British colonial rule, a protest that inspired Myanmar's independence movement.
Although the government does not hold any public events to mark the day, Suu Kyi's National League for Democracy regularly celebrates with a party.
Before the celebration, party member Min Thein walked into the middle of the street in front of the party headquarters and stood silently with a placard reading, "Release Min Ko Naing and other political prisoners."
Min Ko Naing is a member of the 88 Generation Students group, which participated in a brutally suppressed 1988 democratic uprising. Along with many of his fellow former students he was sentenced to 65 years in prison this month for taking part in an Aug. 21, 2007, street protest against a massive fuel price hike by the government.
Plainclothes police took videos and photos of Min Thein's lone protest but did not arrest him during the minutes he stood silently.
"I am expressing my feelings and I am ready to face all consequences," Min Thein told reporters after the protest.
The party marked the anniversary by calling for the release of all political prisoners, including student activists and Buddhist monks who were arrested during anti-government demonstrations in September last year.
Nobel Peace Prize laureate Suu Kyi has spent more than 13 of the past 19 years under house arrest.
Wednesday, November 19, 2008
ဆုိရင္ဗုံမ်ားဆက္တုိက္ ေပါက္ကြဲမည္.သတိေပးေျပာၾကားခ်က္ကုိ ထုိင္းဗုိလ္ခ်ဳပ္ကတိယာ စဝတ္ဒိဘြန္ကေျပာၾကားခဲ့ျပီးတပ္ ဆင္၏ေျပာေရးဆုိခြင့္ရွိသူ စတုပြန္ ပေရာမ္ဖန္းကလဲထုိင္းႏုိင္ငံတြင္ေနာက္အခါျငိမ္းခ်မ္းမွဳဆက္ျပီးမရွိေတာ့ဘူးလုိ.ေျပာၾကား ခဲ့ပါသည္၊
ယင္ကဲ့သုိ.ဗုံေပါက္ကြဲျပီးမၾကာခင္မွာပင္ျပည္သူ.မဟာမိတ္ဒီမုိကေရစီအဖြဲ.ေခါင္းေဆာင္မ်ားကသတင္းစာရွင္းလင္းပြဲျပဳလုပ္ရာမွာ လာမည့္ ၂၃ ရက္ေန.က်ရင္အၾကီးမားဆုံးလူထုဆႏၵျပပြဲတစ္ခုကုိက်င္းပရန္ေဆာ္ၾသထားပါသည္၊ထုိင္းအစုိးရကုိျဖဳတ္ခ်ရန္ ေနာက္ဆုံးလွဳပ္ရားမွဳတစ္ခုျဖစ္တဲ့အေၾကာင္း၊အစုိးရအေနနဲ.အၾကမ္းဖက္မွဳကုိေနာက္ကြဲကေနေထာက္ပံ့ေပးေနတာကုိ၎ တုိ.ကလဲနည္းမ်ဳိးစုံနဲ.တုံ.ျပန္သြားမည့္အေၾကာင္း၊ဒီလုိေပါက္ကြဲမွဳကုိအစုိးရနဲ.ရဲတပ္ဖြဲ.မွာလုံးဝတာဝန္ရွိေၾကာင္းျပင္းထန္း တဲ့စကားလုံးမ်ားျဖင့္ရွင္းလင္းေျပာၾကားသြားပါသည္၊
ထုိင္းႏုိင္ငံေရးအေျခအေနေစာင့္ၾကည့္သူမ်ားက ထုိင္းႏုိင္ငံတြင္ ျပည္တြင္းစစ္ျဖစ္ပြားႏုိင္မည့္အလာလာရွိေနေၾကာင္းသုံးသပ္ ေျပာဆုိေနၾကပါသည္၊ဒီလုိႏွစ္ဖက္တင္းမာေနတဲ့အေျခအေနကုိေျပလည္ေအာင္တာဝန္ယူေျဖရွင္းႏုိင္မည့္အဖြဲ.မရွိေသးသျဖင့္ ထထုိင္းႏုိင္ငံေရး၏ထြက္ေပါက္လမ္းစေပ်ာက္ဆုံးေနသည္၊တျခားေသာေကာလဟာလေျပာဆုိေနတဲ့သတင္းစကားတစ္ခုအရ
ထုိင္းစစ္တပ္က ထုိင္းဘုရင္တုိင္ပင္ခံအမတ္ခ်ဳပ္ ပရင္တင္ဆုလာႏြန္း၏အမိန္.ကုိဆက္နာခံရန္ျငင္းဆန္းေနသည္၊ဘုရင္တုိင္ ပင္ခံအမတ္ခ်ဳပ္ ပရင္တင္ဆုလာႏြန္ဟာတပ္ဆင္၏ရန္သူနံပါတ္တစ္အျဖစ္တပ္ဆင္ေထာက္ခံသူမ်ားကယုံၾကည္ေနၾကပါ သည္၊တပ္ဆင္အေနနဲ.လာမည့္ ၂၃ ရက္ေန.က်ရင္မိန္.ခြန္းထပ္ေလာင္ေျပာၾကားတဲ့အခါ ၎၏ႏုိင္ငံေရးရန္သူမ်ားစရင္းကုိ ထုတ္ျပန္ေၾကညာရန္ရွိသည္ဟု အရိပ္ျမြက္ေျပာၾကားခဲ့ပါသည္၊ထုိ.ေနာက္၊တပ္ဆင္က၎လမ္းေဘးေရာက္သြားေအာင္တြန္.
1 killed, 26 injured in explosion in Government House
Published on November 20, 2008
One protester was killed and 26 other were injured when a bomb exploded inside the Government House complex in front of the main stage of the People's Alliance for Democracy early Thursday morning.
Guards and protesters said the explosion occurred at 3:25 am, just a day after the so-called ceasefire during the royal cremation period.
PAD guards rushed the 27 injured protesters to four hospitals. One of them later died at the hospital. He was identified as Jenjit Kladsakhon, 48. The bomb shrapnel inflicted a 2-cm-deep wound on his throat.
Ten injured were rushed to the Phra Monkut Hospital, 8 to Ramathibodi Hospital, 3 to Central Hospital, 1 to Vajira Hospital and 5 to Chulalongkorn Hospital.
Police were not allowed to check the explosion scene which the PAD guards cordoned off.
Following the explosion, PAD guards would not allow anyone to leave the Government House compound unless he or she carried an ID card.
The guards speculated that the bomb might be fired from behind the Civil Service Commission head office or from a building of the office.
Sujitra Chaiphet, 55, a protester from Lampang, said she was woken up by the explosion sound.
She then heard a lot of people screaming painfully and saw many people covered with blood on their arms and body, most of them women.
Despite the explosion, she said she would continue her protest at the Government House.
Earlier, Maj Gen Khattiaya Sawasdiphol, an expert attached to the Army head office, threatened the PAD with bomb attacks, saying if the protesters did not leave the Government House complex soon, they would be attacked with bombs daily.
The explosion also came after Jatuporn Promphan, a personal spokesman of former prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra, quoted the ousted leader as saying there would be no more peace in Thailand.
What to do about Burma
Written by Nehginpao Kipgen
Thurday, 20 NOVEMEBER, 08
The US appears ready to move beyond sanctions
With years of sanctions following years of sanctions that have had little effect on Burma's leaders, the US government has apparently shifted to a new policy with the creation by the Congress of a post for policy chief for Burma to increase pressure on the junta.
That was followed by the announcement by the White House on November 10 of the nomination of Michael Green, who has served as a senior director for Asian Affairs on President George W. Bush’s National Security Council, to the position.
According to the legislation passed by the Congress, the policy chief is to consult with the governments of China, India, Thailand and Japan, members of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and the European Union to coordinate international strategy to see if they can move the junta into a more reasonable stance than its hard-line refusal to allow the Burmese even a modicum of democracy.
Whether this maneuver brings vigor to the Burmese democratic movement is a question remains to be seen, however. Green, long involved with the Burmese situation, should have noticed the quandary over the Burmese political imbroglio, especially the futility of conflicting approaches by the international community. Sanctions have little impact on the military regime due to engagements by neighboring countries, notably China, India and members of ASEAN. Nor have popular uprisings had any effect. They have been tasted twice, in 1988 and in 2007. Both events were brutally crushed by the military with force.
There is no doubt about the U.S. sanctions hurting the military generals and also the general public. Had there been a coordinated international approach, Burma could have been different today. It must be difficult for the US government to abandon its traditional policy of isolating the Burmese generals and start engaging with them. But they have to realize that sanctions alone are not effective in resolving Burma’s crisis when there is engagement on the other end.
While sanctions are in place, the new envoy can start initiating a ‘carrot and stick’ policy by working together with key international players. The one similar to the North Korean six-party talks model which involved United States, North Korea, China, Japan, Russia and South Korea should be given emphasis on Burma. The hard work of the US in North Korea has now paid off with North Korea being removed from the State Department’s list of terrorists, and in return, North Korea promised to shut down and dismantle its nuclear facilities.
It was not only the stick that worked but also the carrot. The U.S. offered energy and food assistance to the North Korean leadership. A similar initiative could convince Burma’s military generals to come to the negotiating table. The Burmese talks, also a six-party negotiation involving the United States, European Union, ASEAN, China, India, and Burma should be initiated. In the beginning, the junta and some other countries might resist the proposal, but we need to remember that the North Korean talks were also initially not supported by all parties.
Now that the UN Secretary General is heavily involved in the process, the US could garner stronger support from the international community. Without such a move from the U.S., Ban Ki-moon’s 'Group of Friends of the Secretary General on Myanmar' will yield little.
The most effective UN intervention would happen if the Security Council were decide to take action. This scenario is bleak with China and Russia vetoing the move, and likely to do it again if the Burma issue were to come up on the Council’s agenda.
The creation of a U.S. special envoy and policy chief for Burma is a welcome move. With this new position coming into place, the U.S. should start moving beyond imposing sanctions.
Nehginpao Kipgen is the General Secretary of US-based Kuki International Forum (www.kukiforum.com) and a researcher on the rise of political conflicts in modern Burma (1947-2004).